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pulsed-laser imaging

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Journal Articles
Publisher: Journals Gateway
EDFA Technical Articles (2010) 12 (3): 20–27.
Published: 01 August 2010
... a limit on the laser power that can be safely used on 45 nm devices, which further compromises fault localization precision. In this article, the authors explain how they overcome these limitations using pulsed laser-induced imaging techniques and a refractive solid immersion lens. Two case studies show...
Journal Articles
Publisher: Journals Gateway
EDFA Technical Articles (2008) 10 (3): 18–26.
Published: 01 August 2008
... also be observed that the induced signal lags the beam transition by 6 s. This time delay could be due to the (a) (b) Fig. 1 Frontside image of 15.3 single metal line electromigration sample with TIVA signal overlaid in pseudocolor 20 Electronic Device Failure Analysis (c) Fig. 2 Pulsed laser...
Journal Articles
Publisher: Journals Gateway
EDFA Technical Articles (2001) 3 (4): 29–35.
Published: 01 November 2001
... the advantages of OBIC and SCEBIC and avoids their disadvantages. System Setup The SCOBIC system combines a scanning optical microscope, laser beam pulsing, transient signal acquisition, and SCOBIC imaging modules. The schematic diagram of the SCOBIC system is shown in Fig. 1. A 633 nm HeNe laser is used...
Journal Articles
Publisher: Journals Gateway
EDFA Technical Articles (2007) 9 (1): 14–18.
Published: 01 February 2007
... pulse creates a transient popu- lation inversion. The laser pro- duces ~0.2 (0.1) PJ pulses of pico- second time duration at O 13.9 (13.2) nm and a 5 Hz repetition rate. Fig. 5 EUV image of 50 nm dense lines (left) obtained at O 13.2 nm with the FZP with Test samples used to assess spatial resolution...
Journal Articles
Publisher: Journals Gateway
EDFA Technical Articles (2015) 17 (2): 10–17.
Published: 01 May 2015
... developed and reported on in Ref 2 and 3 can as shown in Fig. 1. Continuously pulsing the laser at the measure the time of the failing transition relative to the same time in the loop holds time constant, and x and y are start of the test loop. scanned to create a TR-LADA image, which snapshots the Fig. 1...
Journal Articles
Publisher: Journals Gateway
EDFA Technical Articles (2001) 3 (2): 1–12.
Published: 01 May 2001
... research. The earliest and most widespread of these is terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, or THz-TDS1-2. The key components of a THz-TDS system are a fem- tosecond laser and a pair of specially designed trans- ducers. By gating these transducers with ultrafast opti- cal pulses, one can get picosecond...
Journal Articles
Publisher: Journals Gateway
EDFA Technical Articles (2000) 2 (3): 20–25.
Published: 01 August 2000
... the input signal has been Fig. 8: Comparison of LVP and E-Beam waveforms for similar probe pulse widths. Fig. 7: Backside IR image of a CMOS IC showing transistor devices at silicon level. Image acquired using the LVP laser scanning microscope. 24 Fig. 9: Internal signal waveforms acquired using the LVP...
Journal Articles
Publisher: Journals Gateway
EDFA Technical Articles (1999) 1 (3): 6–17.
Published: 01 August 1999
.... The technique is based on phase contrast near infrared imaging of temperature dependant changes in the substrate refractive index. Fig. 4: Optical schematic of Schlieren Optical Imaging System used to capture PCSS image. Pulsed laser diode source and timing electronics not shown. Reproduced with the permission...
Journal Articles
Publisher: Journals Gateway
EDFA Technical Articles (2016) 18 (3): 10–16.
Published: 01 August 2016
... Block diagram of EeLADA concept laser stimulates the region of interest, the test outcome is compared against the reference failing signature at each pixel. In the event of a match, a trigger pulse is generated by the comparator module and sent to the image processor. This is how LADA signals...
Journal Articles
Publisher: Journals Gateway
EDFA Technical Articles (2017) 19 (2): 31–34.
Published: 01 May 2017
... to 100 nm) of the contaminant residue (human skin tissue) on one of the test silicon wafers. After locating the desired site from the AFM image, the QCL pulse rate is tuned to one of the cantilever oscillation modes (~170 kHz, 2nd mode), and the laser is swept in the fast-acquisition mode to acquire...
Journal Articles
Publisher: Journals Gateway
EDFA Technical Articles (2018) 20 (1): 10–18.
Published: 01 February 2018
...] No signatures were obtained with other techniques (emission microscopy, laser frequency imaging). Using a 220× (2.45 NA) solid immersion lens with an 8× laser scan magnification through the backside of the silicon, the SDL signature provides very accurate localization of the failure, highlighting the PMOS...
Journal Articles
Publisher: Journals Gateway
EDFA Technical Articles (2010) 12 (3): 4–8.
Published: 01 August 2010
... There have been multiple amplifier and signalfiltering methods applied to improve IVA detection, but some of the most promising work has been in pulsed-laser and pulsed-device operation.[8,9] By puls- failure analysis techniques more challenging to use in fine defect localization. The IVA approaches...
Journal Articles
Publisher: Journals Gateway
EDFA Technical Articles (2013) 15 (1): 37–40.
Published: 01 February 2013
... speaker, Chris Nemirow from DCG Systems, described the principles and applications of frequency mapping using laser voltage imaging (LVI) and laser voltage probing (LVP). After explaining how switching transistors modulate the intensity Volume 15, No. 1 37 ISTFA '12 User's Group Summary of reflected light...
Journal Articles
Publisher: Journals Gateway
EDFA Technical Articles (2019) 21 (2): 54–55.
Published: 01 May 2019
... FAILURE ANALYSIS | VOLUME 21 NO. 2 Reflected light image (left) and TIVA image (right) of a biased decoder at ambient temperature using a 1064 nm laser. Three distinct signals (dark circles) were detected with TIVA. separated by interlayer SiO2, vias, and junctions), defects such as shorts and resistive...
Journal Articles
Publisher: Journals Gateway
EDFA Technical Articles (2003) 5 (4): 27–32.
Published: 01 November 2003
... resolution) laser that is common to systems used for IC failure analysis. of the VCSEL output aperture that agrees with the regions of low light output in the above-threshold image in Fig. 6(b). A contradiction is the uniform emission in the subthreshold image in Fig. 6(a). If there is a problem...
Journal Articles
Publisher: Journals Gateway
EDFA Technical Articles (2000) 2 (2): 32–32B.
Published: 01 May 2000
... the shadow like character of the resultant images. L.M. Foucault is generally credited with the first use of a Schlieren optical system. 32A diagnostic techniques. A pulse laser synchronized to the switching event in a Schlieren imaging apparatus allowed capture of the transient heating caused...
Journal Articles
Publisher: Journals Gateway
EDFA Technical Articles (2010) 12 (2): 20–28.
Published: 01 May 2010
... optical effect in which two photons are simultaneously absorbed. High-peak pulse power, picosecond lasers are used to create the conditions needed to observe the absorption signals as a photocurrent in the integrated circuit. Resolution enhancement is due to the square power dependency of two-photon...
Journal Articles
Publisher: Journals Gateway
EDFA Technical Articles (2015) 17 (4): 32–36.
Published: 01 November 2015
... than 10 µm.[2-5] As in conventional TDR, the faultdetection accuracy of EOTPR is a function of the rise time of the incident pulse, the time-based jitter, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The EOTPR system generates a terahertz pulse using an ultrafast laser and a pair of photoconductive switches...
Journal Articles
Publisher: Journals Gateway
EDFA Technical Articles (2018) 20 (4): 24–29.
Published: 01 November 2018
... jitter, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The EOTPR instrument generates a terahertz pulse using an ultrafast laser and a pair of photoconductive switches for signal generation and detection, resulting in a system with (i) high measurement bandwidth, (ii) low time-base jitter, and (iii) a high time-base...
Journal Articles
Publisher: Journals Gateway
EDFA Technical Articles (2013) 15 (4): 4–11.
Published: 01 November 2013
... analytical technique that provides 3-D chemical composition with near-atomic resolution. Although the basic technique has been known for several decades,[1] the applications were mostly limited to electrically conductive materials due to the voltage-pulse mode. The introduction of the laser-pulse mode opened...