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logic level mapping

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Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2001) 3 (3): 15–18.
Published: 01 August 2001
... about the functionality of ICs. Voltage contrast can be used, for example, to map electrical logic levels and timing waveforms from internal nodes of the chip as it operates inside the SEM chamber. This article describes the fundamentals of voltage contrast and its applications in IC failure analysis...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2001) 3 (4): 3–11.
Published: 01 November 2001
... database and pattern sets, the extraction can be automated and the analysis completed within minutes. The logic mapping flow is a natural extension of scan-based diagnosis with the potential to reach new levels of electrical failure analysis without the extensive data collection and resources associated...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2015) 17 (1): 33–37.
Published: 01 February 2015
... consisted of extended wavelength emission detection, laser logic-state imaging, SIGNALS WITH THINNED picosecond time-resolved laser-assisted device alteration (LADA), spectral mapping through transmission grating, SILICON. and many more. The physical improvements consisted of work with aplanatic solid...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2018) 20 (2): 18–24.
Published: 01 May 2018
... is the primary choice for SRAM scan chain failures because it has the unique capability of mapping the periodic signal in a DUT. In this section, four cases of SRAM logic type failures are analyzed and the appropriate diagnostic techniques are presented. Fig. 7 SEM image showing a poly micro-mask, causing a poly...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2005) 7 (1): 16–24.
Published: 01 February 2005
... be used for testing: (1) stuck-at bits that effectively block the scan chain to a fixed logic level; (2) intermittent bits from a scan bit or bits that do not have scan enable connected correctly; and (3) timing-based hold-time problems that corrupt the data stream by causing bit skipping, bit dropping...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2018) 20 (1): 10–18.
Published: 01 February 2018
... at ISTFA 2014), logic-state mapping, and electroluminescence spectroscopy (ISTFA 2015). Laurent Clément obtained a Ph.D. in physics at the Atomic Energy Commissariat in 2006 and an engineer diploma in materials science at the Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Physique de Grenoble in 2011. He is currently...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2012) 14 (4): 12–18.
Published: 01 November 2012
... of the bitline. The data are driven through the bitline and the third terminal of the transistor into the cell capacitor. The data that are stored in the cell are either a high or a low voltage level, VBLH or VBLL (bitline high or low), in respect to the reference level (VREF), which is VREF = (VBLH + VBLL)/2...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2007) 9 (1): 20–23.
Published: 01 February 2007
... crystal. Voltage contrast is typically a first-tier failure isolation technique useful in isolating problems to a specific circuit or circuit block. This is particularly valuable when there is a lack of circuit schematics, die maps, logic diagrams, or bit maps, which can severely limit the amount...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2006) 8 (2): 28–34.
Published: 01 May 2006
.... Singleevent upset (SEU) protection resistors are incorporated into all memory elements, that is, the SRAM cells and flip-flops. Figure 3 shows the elements that comprise the lowest-level logic tile of the SASIC. This fundamental logic tile consists of approximately 11 equivalent logic gates and 32 bits...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2000) 2 (3): 1–10.
Published: 01 August 2000
... Roadmaps page 9) Introduction The data were taken on a 0.25 µm generation CMOS logic technology1 using active devices fabricated in dual wells with shallow trench isolation, complementary-doped gates, and source/ Fig. 1: Wafer map of fractional fallout in burn-in as a function of die location. The larger...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2016) 18 (4): 4–14.
Published: 01 November 2016
... IN SCAN CHAIN DIAGNOSIS HAS IMPROVED THE IN-LINE SCAN CHAIN LOGIC FAILURE ANALYSIS SUCCESS RATE TO THAT OF SRAM FAILURE ANALYSIS. LVI s unique capability to map the periodic signal[7-9] in a DUT makes it a great diagnostic technique for scan chain failure, whether the scan chain failure is due...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2001) 3 (4): 21–26.
Published: 01 November 2001
... in the test vectors (Unknowns result from portions of the design that cannot be controlled by the scan vectors; common examples are RAM outputs, unscanned flip-flops, isolated latches, analog and asynchronous circuitry, and some pad wiring.) Complete logical to physical mapping; i.e. the ability to convert...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2023) 25 (2): 44–46.
Published: 01 May 2023
... dimension (vertical) with the introduction of CFET and vertical TFET. Therefore, for the logic device front-end FA, this minimum volume must be analyzed with atomic-level resolution with chemical species identification. Other challenges include noninvasive 45 sample prep and imaging of low-k films, even...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2003) 5 (4): 13–24.
Published: 01 November 2003
... transistor logic states (logic mapping); however, logicstate LIVA signals are much weaker than defectgenerated LIVA signals. Speaking of sensitivity, IC defects will produce LIVA signals 3 to 4 orders of magnitude greater than LIVA signals produced during the logic mapping of nondefective ICs (see subsequent...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2024) 26 (2): 32–38.
Published: 01 May 2024
... be the vast majority of failure analysis teams. Especially for those that support diverse portfolios built using a wide variety of different technology nodes down to ~5 nm FinFET. From LVP waveform data one can observe logical switching behavior from internal circuits of interest to root cause sources...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2000) 2 (4): 13–16.
Published: 01 November 2000
... Cache SRAM in the CMOS6X process. It was necessary to run these bit fail maps in some cases at speeds faster than 1.5 ns cycle to capture memory cells failing due to the Holey Shmoo problem. The L1 Cache SRAM self-test logic is equipped with the circuitry necessary to supply onthe-fly fail data...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2014) 16 (3): 4–12.
Published: 01 August 2014
...Szu Huat Goh; Boon Lian Yeoh; Guo Feng You; Jeffrey Lam This article describes a yield-driven approach for characterizing IC logic failures at the wafer level and presents several case studies to demonstrate its versatility and assess its value. Copyright © ASM International® 2014 2014 ASM...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2017) 19 (4): 22–34.
Published: 01 November 2017
... internal circuit logic and speed paths at large. Some techniques related to such applications are waveform probing of internal nodes[15-18] and logic state mapping.[19] Fundamentally, be it software- or hardware-based approaches to postsilicon failure debug, an in-depth knowledge of the DFT or design...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2010) 12 (4): 12–20.
Published: 01 November 2010
...-in-voltage mode, the lock-in-current mode facilitates detection of periodic dynamic supply currents.[7] In CMOS logic chips, the transition edges lead to a main dynamic-current consumption. Therefore, the lock-in-current method, as a form of dynamic TLS, is more sensitive to problems occurring during...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2009) 11 (4): 14–21.
Published: 01 November 2009
... (serpentine comb monitor) º Internal circuit leakage (isolated from chip I/O) º I/O leakage º Hard logic fails Die high resistance: º Upper-level metal defects º Cracked die MCI is also used in the FA process to map power distributions, look for shorts and high resistances in stacked die, and isolate...