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Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2014) 16 (3): 14–19.
Published: 01 August 2014
...David Burgess Electromigration is a wearout mechanism that contributes significantly to IC failures. This article discusses the causes and effects of this often overlooked failure mode and presents practical guidelines to help analysts determine whether or not electromigration is the cause...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2008) 10 (1): 24–29.
Published: 01 February 2008
... on the order of several MA/cm2. Electromigration as a root cause for chip failure is thus a major concern and is still being examined. In this article, the authors present recent failure analysis studies on metal-coated copper interconnects, using OBIRCH techniques in combination with FIB cross-sectioning...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2002) 4 (4): 11–16.
Published: 01 November 2002
... received special attention due to their widespread occurrence. Via Voiding and Particulates An early report of a resistive contact and its temperature effects was given by Campbell, et al.6 Significantly, the initial temperature-dependent resistive contact failure later electromigrated to a full open...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2001) 3 (1): 24–27.
Published: 01 February 2001
..., tungsten, solder bumps, and magnetic materials. The ability to provide large fields of view for electromigration studies and long chains of vias is also (See Automated Sample page 26) Fig 1. Automated cross-section ELECTRONIC DEVICE FAILURE ANALYSIS NEWS Automated Sample, continued discussed. The goal...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2016) 18 (2): 12–14.
Published: 01 May 2016
... be a mechanism that can bite us again if we re not vigilant. BACKGROUND Stress cracks, or stress voiding, in IC metallization were not a problem until 1980. Electromigration was a major focus. However, metal opens were occurring in high-temperature operating life, after temperature cycle, and after time...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2022) 24 (1): 29–32.
Published: 01 February 2022
... A/cm2) at position ê (right). edfas.org 31 ELECTRONIC DEVICE FAILURE ANALYSIS | VOLUME 24 NO. 1 Fig. 4 Measurement capabilities of SNVM. and indicates points where electromigration can occur. Finally, in Fig. 3d (left) the quantilever is placed on the loop and the applied current is varied. This allows...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2004) 6 (3): 13–18.
Published: 01 August 2004
... testing and are electromigration reliability risks because of the higher current density in the conducting portion of these defective vias. This can be a yield-limiting failure mechanism, because billions of small, high-aspectratio vias must be fabricated for each die. Metal mousebites are small nicks...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2005) 7 (3): 32–33.
Published: 01 August 2005
... The Sematech Failure Analysis Roadmap and addressed a broad set of failure analysis needs through the distant future (at that time) to the year 2007. There were 54 technical papers after the keynote. The Best Paper award was Electromigration Study of Focused Ion Beam Modified Metal Lines by J.L. Lee and D.H...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2000) 2 (3): 1–10.
Published: 01 August 2000
..., such as hot electron degradation or metal line electromigration, occur during the useful life of the product. Failures seen by the customer should be due only to latent manufacturing defects. The basis for the correlation between reliability and yield is that the same defects responsible for yield failures...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2016) 18 (1): 14–20.
Published: 01 February 2016
... formation by accumulation of defects edfas.org ELECTRONIC DEVICE FAILURE ANALYSIS | VOLUME 18 NO. 1 20 4. J.-W. Nah et al.: Electromigration in Flip Chip Joints Having a Thick Cu Column Bump and a Shallow Solder Interconect, J. Appl. Phys., 2006, 100, p. 123513. 5. Y. Takai et al.: Analysis of Gas...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2024) 26 (2): 10–18.
Published: 01 May 2024
... images of an aluminum line with a tungsten cap layer after electromigration, and Figs. 1c and d show the analysis Morlet wavelets and the µSHD curves. Note that all input images for µSHD analysis in this work are trimmed to the same size of 512 × 512 pixels2. The first eight columns in Fig. 1c show...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2016) 18 (1): 22–28.
Published: 01 February 2016
... showing weld-growth formation. Courtesy of ESEC (now BESI North America) Instances of failures in layers below the surface, allowing electromigration and eventually resulting in interlayer shorts, are well documented. Often these failures can occur while the top metal layers and wire bond are unaffected...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2003) 5 (4): 5–10.
Published: 01 November 2003
... and spaces.1 This in turn has driven bump fatigue (due to reduced compliance of smaller bumps), metal migration, and electromigration concerns. The power dissipation requirements have driven the need for compliant, adherent thermal interface materials that endure temperature cycling without loss of thermal...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (1999) 1 (2): 1–20.
Published: 01 May 1999
... crystal and fluorescent microtherrnal imaging (FMI). MFM, however, combines excellent spatial resolution (50-100 urn) and detection sensitivity UJA for AC current) for direct detection of high-current paths. Figures 4a and 4b show the topology and MFM images of an electromigration test structure...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (1999) 1 (4): 21–23.
Published: 01 November 1999
... then comparing lots, is neces- 600 sa for an accurate characterization of stress voiding. The inability to predict nucleation is a major reason that no simple 400 200 o o 100 200 300 400 formulation of reliability (an analog of Black's equation in electromigration, for example) exists. The tools, techniques...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2019) 21 (3): 26–32.
Published: 01 August 2019
.... Maps such as these can help an FA engineer understand which textures are more prone to electromigration failure than others. ratio can be achieved by using a mathematical procedure called principle component analysis (PCA4] In PCA, the observed variables are reduced to a smaller number of principle...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2002) 4 (3): 5–9.
Published: 01 August 2002
...]. These partially open defects are susceptible to electromigration, since the current density is higher in the smaller conducting volume. Simulations show that effective resistance in a crack or via in the series signal path must reach hundreds of k before significant delay occurs[14, 15]. Conclusions...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2008) 10 (3): 18–26.
Published: 01 August 2008
... also be observed that the induced signal lags the beam transition by 6 s. This time delay could be due to the (a) (b) Fig. 1 Frontside image of 15.3 single metal line electromigration sample with TIVA signal overlaid in pseudocolor 20 Electronic Device Failure Analysis (c) Fig. 2 Pulsed laser...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2006) 8 (3): 12–17.
Published: 01 August 2006
... a reliability risk, because the current density increases rapidly with voiding. The 90% voided metal would endure approximately 10 times the current density in the narrow strip than in the defect-free metal squares. This significantly increases the chance for electromigration failure.[10] A grossly resistive...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2007) 9 (4): 6–13.
Published: 01 November 2007
... applied to enhance yield, the voltage accuracy of ebeam probing can identify interconnect issues down to a particular metallization. Further in FA, e-beam probing can be used to identify the location of electromigration issues, electrostatic discharge damage, electrical overstress damage, and so...