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EDFA Technical Articles (2017) 19 (4): 12–20.
Published: 01 November 2017
...Oskar Amster; Stuart Friedman; Yongliang Yang; Fred Stanke Scanning microwave impedance microscopy (sMIM) is a relatively new method for making electrical measurements on test samples in AFMs. This article presents examples in which sMIM technology is used to measure dielectric coefficients, doping...
EDFA Technical Articles (2011) 13 (1): 46–48.
Published: 01 February 2011
...) dielectrics. The problem is worst for large die, where thermal excursions are largest and stresses on the fragile dielectrics highest. Silicon substrates offer the following advantages: High wiring density due to the very flat substrate Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) matched to the silicon die...
EDFA Technical Articles (2022) 24 (1): 17–28.
Published: 01 February 2022
...Yasuo Cho Scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy (SNDM) is a scanning probe technique that measures changes in oscillation frequency between the probe tip and a voltage-biased sample. As the probe moves across the surface of a semiconductor device, the oscillation frequency changes in response...
EDFA Technical Articles (2014) 16 (2): 18–23.
Published: 01 May 2014
... be classified into different types based on their materials and construction: tantalum, ceramics, aluminum, and so on (Table 1). Each offers a unique set of properties suited for a particular application. A simple CAP consists of a dielectric material sandwiched between two conductors with a bias applied across...
EDFA Technical Articles (2000) 2 (2): 17–29.
Published: 01 May 2000
...Michael C. Olewine; John F. DiGregorio; Gus J. Colovos; Kevin F. Saiz; Hongjiang Sun This case study describes the difficulties and challenges failure analysts encountered in their nearly year-long investigation into the cause of cracking in a dielectric film. Despite the trend in microelectronics...
EDFA Technical Articles (2001) 3 (3): 15–18.
Published: 01 August 2001
... of the primary beam with the target. The amplitude of the energy distribution is proportional to the primary beam current. The ratio of the total secondary electron emission current to the primary electron current is commonly referred to as the secondary emission coefficient . The typical energy distribution...
EDFA Technical Articles (2003) 5 (4): 5–10.
Published: 01 November 2003
... conductivity. Another significant challenge is the integration of mechanically weak Cu/low-k dielectrics at the < 90 nm node with organic packages that induce thermal mechanical and mechanical stress. In addition to the high-performance packaging challenges, there is a vast array of package technologies...
EDFA Technical Articles (2017) 19 (3): 4–11.
Published: 01 August 2017
...Ming Lei; J. Price; Yujin Cho; Farbod Shafiei; M.C. Downer Optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) is a noninvasive technique that provides information about interface properties and crystal defects. This article demonstrates the use of SGH in the study of high-k dielectrics, silicon-on-insulator...
EDFA Technical Articles (2006) 8 (4): 6–11.
Published: 01 November 2006
... characterization. Traditional microprobing requires the use of a focused ion beam (FIB) to cut small holes through the dielectric layers and between the metal lines of the upper layers of metallization of the semiconductor device to access the transistor nodes. These contact holes are then backfilled with FIB...
EDFA Technical Articles (2001) 3 (4): 15–19.
Published: 01 November 2001
... are now qualified in shorter timeframes. New die-level interconnect materials, such as copper and ultra-low-k dielectrics, may challenge conventional low-cost packaging solutions. These new packaging materials and interfaces will need analytical support for successful implementation. Finally, flip chip...
EDFA Technical Articles (2015) 17 (4): 22–28.
Published: 01 November 2015
... are normally used either for low-frequency coupling or for radio-frequency transient protection. Another protection is offered by a more or less elastic conductive epoxy buffer for the terminal pads. This approach allows a little elastic movement to compensate for coefficient of thermal expansion differences...
EDFA Technical Articles (2020) 22 (3): 8–15.
Published: 01 August 2020
... assessment, starting after a failure analysis and integrated in a real structured problem solving approach. In the context of semiconductor industry for automotive, an inter dielectric delamination defect is used as a case study to visualize statistics usage in risk assessment: for this failure, some field...
EDFA Technical Articles (2004) 6 (4): 12–17.
Published: 01 November 2004
.... This is particularly useful and Heat is then extracted from the heat exchanger by inexpensive where analysis on a range of die sizes is forced air convection. This increased surface area is required. required because the heat-transfer coefficient, h, for forced air convection is low at approximately 0.01 W/cm2/°C...
EDFA Technical Articles (2012) 14 (3): 46–47.
Published: 01 August 2012
... wiring density due to the very flat substrate Efficiency of wiring layers on each chip, because the global wiring is built on the interposer Efficiency of the active area on each chip, because there is no keep-out area for the TSV Coefficient of thermal expansion matched to the silicon die Lower...
Edward I. Cole, Jr., Paiboon Tangyunyong, Charles F. Hawkins, Michael R. Bruce, Victoria J. Bruce ...
EDFA Technical Articles (2002) 4 (4): 11–16.
Published: 01 November 2002
... to be weak liner attachment to the W and stress forces, respectively. Via Pushup Via pushup defects occur when Al bulges or pushes up into the W via.9 The permanent extrusion of Al into the via space is believed to be stress-induced with the thermal coefficient of expansion playing an initial (Editor s note...
EDFA Technical Articles (2006) 8 (4): 12–14.
Published: 01 November 2006
... than leadbased solders, meaning that the devices see wider temperature excursions during manufacturing. This tends to exacerbate all the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatches in the package. Couple this with the new low-k dielectrics (which are not mechanically strong compared to previous...
EDFA Technical Articles (2019) 21 (1): 20–25.
Published: 01 February 2019
... and an InGaAs CCD is used for wavelengths in the near-IR range. Fig. 3 Thermoreflectance coefficient vs. wavelength for various materials typically encountered with semiconductor devices. also changes. Thermoreflectance thermal imaging (TTI) depends on an accurate measurement of the relative change in surface...
EDFA Technical Articles (2014) 16 (4): 20–24.
Published: 01 November 2014
... fatigue cracking of copper involves the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch Microvoids on the TSV axis (incomplete conformal between the silicon and the copper, especially during filling) temperature cycling. Much progress has been made Barrel cracking within the TSV Voids in vias, including...
EDFA Technical Articles (2005) 7 (1): 10–14.
Published: 01 February 2005
... no glassivation and polyimide as an interlevel dielectric. Additional challenges involve the ever-shrinking size of the packages; some look no larger than a grain of pepper, requiring them to be potted in a socket prior to decapsulation. At the other extreme is chip-on-boards, which require exposing numerous...
EDFA Technical Articles (2002) 4 (1): 5–10.
Published: 01 February 2002
... Technologies designs and fabricates semiconductor products used in high-performance graphics, test, and communications applications. These electrically complex semiconductors frequently operate at very high frequencies, have high power dissipations, and are physically large. Due to their high dielectric...