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depth of field

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Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2005) 7 (4): 24–31.
Published: 01 November 2005
... because magnetic fields pass through most materials used in ICs and device packages. This article discusses the theory and practical limitations of magnetic field imaging and demonstrates its use in mapping current density and determining the location and depth of current-carrying conductors. Copyright...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2012) 14 (1): 4–12.
Published: 01 February 2012
...David C. Joy This article provides an introduction to scanning ion microscopy, explaining how it overcomes one of the biggest limitations of SEMs, namely the tradeoff between spatial resolution and depth of field, while also providing significantly more surface detail, a wide range of novel...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2007) 9 (1): 20–23.
Published: 01 February 2007
...) is now a standard tool for IC failure analysis. Its primary advantage over the light microscope is its depth of field and much higher magnification. This makes isolation techniques that involve the SEM much more favorable than those used with the light microscope, such as light emission and liquid...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2000) 2 (4): 4–23.
Published: 01 November 2000
.... A confocal image is one with a limited depth of field (depth of focus) created by inserting an aperture in the optical path. By taking a series of confocal images at different focal planes, an extended depth of focus image can be constructed. The extended depth of focus image is particularly useful...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2002) 4 (4): 5–9.
Published: 01 November 2002
... decade. Unfortunately, pure imaging power alone is insufficient. The tradeoffs of field-of-view and depth-offield for magnification severely limit the area and volume of a chip that can be inspected in a reasonable amount of time. To be effective, the probable location of a defect must be predetermined...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2013) 15 (4): 4–11.
Published: 01 November 2013
... dimension (in depth) can be obtained using the assumption that the atoms are field evaporated in a controlled way, layer by layer, from the surface of the tip. The mass of each ion is determined by the time of flight measured between the laser pulse, causing the field evaporation of an ion, and the arrival...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2004) 6 (2): 28–30.
Published: 01 May 2004
... electron microscopy (SEM) or FIB imaging to improve spatial resolution and depth of field. Development of atomic-force-microscope-based systems has also been performed. While FIB probe pads are a possible solution, the ability to create probe pads without altering circuit characteristics is not clear...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2005) 7 (2): 42–44.
Published: 01 May 2005
.... The 4× improvement is an understandable relation to NA performance; however, NA alone is inadequate to define performance! The three-dimensional or volumetric nature of the emission source coupled with NA has a profound influence on sensitivity, because NA also relates to depth-of-field collection from...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2003) 5 (2): 5–9.
Published: 01 May 2003
... field-of-view and depth-of-field, placing severe limits on inspection area and volume. For such instruments to be effective, the probable defect location must be predetermined to both a tractable area and vertical wiring level, placing a greater demand on the prior steps of fault isolation...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2014) 16 (4): 26–34.
Published: 01 November 2014
... and sensitivity). Finally, two additional characteristics prove useful as diagnostic aids: determining relative current direction from the measured polarity of the magnetic field, which helps identify current sources and sinks in a circuit; and calculating current depth using the known geometry of the field...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2017) 19 (3): 12–20.
Published: 01 August 2017
... to prevent electric field crowding at the perimeter of the device and consequent premature breakdown far below the theoretical limit of the material. While means to create edge-termination structures, which include field plates, beveled edges, guard rings, and junction-termination extensions (JTEs), are well...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2007) 9 (4): 14–19.
Published: 01 November 2007
... is used to quantitatively measure (with a standard reference) the total number of low-Z nuclei in a thin film or in the bulk, but without depth resolution. In the field of microelectronic devices, the common elements analyzed are lithium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen as principal components...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2001) 3 (2): 1–12.
Published: 01 May 2001
.... The thickness of a single layer of latex paint on a metal surface can be determined by the propagation delay. Biomedical imaging applications may include non-contact burn depth measurements or skin moisture sensing. One method for improving the spatial resolution uses near-field techniques. If the object...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2016) 18 (4): 24–29.
Published: 01 November 2016
... systems. Scanning acoustic microscopy requires the sample to be immersed in water, allowing ultrasound, typically in the megahertz range, to couple into it. The spatial resolution of this technique depends on the frequency: the higher the better. Unfortunately, this implies a lower penetration depth...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2022) 24 (1): 29–32.
Published: 01 February 2022
... NV microscopy (SNVM) consists of a sharp diamond pillar with the NV center implanted at a depth of ~10 nm from the tip apex. Figure 1a shows a scanning electron microscopy image of the QuantileverMX, the SNVM sensor pioneered and patented by Qnami AG. The magnetic field signal is read out optically...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2000) 2 (2): 1–10.
Published: 01 May 2000
...Lee A. Knauss Recent work with a commercial instrument based on a SQUID sensor shows that magnetic field imaging can be very effective in isolating defect shorts in packages and dies. This technique is especially beneficial when the defect is buried under layers of metal, Si, or encapsulation...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2009) 11 (4): 14–21.
Published: 01 November 2009
..., but this general dependence will suffice. The field sensitivity, that is, the minimum field that can be detected by the sensor, determines the first two parameters: maximum depth and minimum current. MCI is a near-field technique, and thus, resolution is limited by the scanning distance or the sensor size...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2016) 18 (3): 4–8.
Published: 01 August 2016
... on the transducer focus. The particular combination of materials used in this dielectric material is restricting the acoustic depth of field. This is not normally the case, and it gives a plausible reason why acoustic inspection at the time of manufacture may have missed a set of voids that did not appear when...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2018) 20 (4): 4–12.
Published: 01 November 2018
... allow for lateral resolution capabilities of below 1 µm.[3] However, this increased lateral resolution comes at the expense of the achievable penetration depth, which renders the technique highly sensitive to surface and subsurface areas. The method is therefore ideally suited for thin structures...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2017) 19 (4): 36–44.
Published: 01 November 2017
...-voltage imaging montages at each delayering sequence). Imaging conditions include the desired optical parameters, such as accelerating voltage, beam current, field of view, pixel density, and the choice of detectors (secondary electrons, BSEs, etc The accelerating voltage governs the interaction volume...