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defect localization

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Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2012) 14 (4): 12–18.
Published: 01 November 2012
...Martin Versen Failure analysis of dynamic random access memory follows a three-step process consisting of electrical test and diagnosis, localization, and physical defect analysis. The electrical test delivers pass-fail results that are graphically displayed in bitmaps, which are then used...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2008) 10 (4): 24–29.
Published: 01 November 2008
... adapted to accommodate the size of these detectors and the exotic materials from which they are made. It discusses the types of defects that can occur and how they affect critical detector characteristics. It describes the basic approach for defect localization and physical analysis and presents examples...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2001) 3 (4): 9–13.
Published: 01 November 2001
... the setup of a prototype laser-SQUID system, explaining how it works and how it compares to other nondestructive defect localization techniques. It presents application examples in which laser-SQUID microscopy is used to locate gate oxide shorts to within 1.3 μm and detect IC defects prior to bond-pad...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2012) 14 (3): 12–20.
Published: 01 August 2012
...Fulvio Infante Magnetic microscopy is a defect localization technique that has several advantages. It is nondestructive, noninvasive, and contactless. In many cases, it can be used even before component depackaging. This article describes the basic setup of a magnetic current imaging (MCI...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2016) 18 (3): 10–16.
Published: 01 August 2016
...S.H. Goh; B.L. Yeoh; G.F. You; Y.H. Chan; Zhao Lin; Jeffrey Lam; C.M. Chua This article explains how hardware and software enhancements bring new capabilities to one of the most widely used soft-defect localization techniques. It discusses the basic concept of electrically enhanced laser-assisted...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2010) 12 (4): 22–27.
Published: 01 November 2010
...Kevin Sanchez Dynamic laser stimulation is widely used in the PASS/FAIL mapping mode for soft defect localization. Recent improvements, including parametric mapping and multiple-parameter acquisition, significantly increase the amount of information that can be extracted from DLS measurements...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2009) 11 (1): 46–47.
Published: 01 February 2009
...Ehrenfried Zschech This column explains why transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) and X-ray computed tomography (XCT) could become the methods of choice for defect localization in the coming years. Copyright © ASM International® 2009 2009 ASM International defect localization X-ray imaging...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2002) 4 (2): 10–16.
Published: 01 May 2002
...Edward I. Cole Jr. This article provides a qualitative overview of several new defect localization techniques, including charge-induced voltage alteration (CIVA), light-induced voltage alteration (LIVA), thermally-induced voltage alteration (TIVA), and Seebeck effect imaging (SEI). It explains how...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2007) 9 (1): 20–23.
Published: 01 February 2007
... contributes to advanced defect localization. Copyright © ASM International® 2007 2007 ASM International electron beam induced current imaging failure isolation voltage contrast imaging httpsdoi.org/10.31399/asm.edfa.2007-1.p020 EDFAAO (2007) 1:20-23 VC and EBIC 1537-0755/$19.00 ©ASM...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2020) 22 (2): 29–35.
Published: 01 May 2020
...Sebastian Brand; Frank Altmann This article describes a form of lock-in thermography that achieves 3D localization of thermally active defects in stacked die packages. In this approach, phase shifts associated with thermal propagation delay are analyzed as a function of frequency. This allows...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2018) 20 (1): 10–18.
Published: 01 February 2018
...Thierry Parrassin; Laurent Clément Soft electrical failures caused by monograin defects can have a significant impact on yield in technology nodes below 40 nm. Moreover, the failures are hard to identify and the defects give very few signatures during localization testing. In this article...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2010) 12 (3): 10–18.
Published: 01 August 2010
...Paiboon Tangyunyong; Edward I. Cole, Jr. Thermally-induced voltage alteration (TIVA) is a laser-based method for localizing interconnect defects in ICs. Its main limitation is that the laser must heat the defect and change its resistance sufficiently to produce a measurable voltage alteration...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2000) 2 (2): 1–10.
Published: 01 May 2000
... materials. Many of these defects can be imaged for coarse localization without any deprocessing of the sample. SQUID sensors can produce weak current images even in the presence of background current five orders of magnitude stronger. This high sensitivity also enables effective imaging with much lower...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2023) 25 (3): 54–55.
Published: 01 August 2023
... analysis typically consists of two major sequential steps. The first step, fault isolation, involves using software diagnostics, ATE testers, and various optical-based fault isolation techniques to narrow down the faulty area. The second step, post-isolation, focuses on further localizing the defective...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2017) 19 (4): 4–9.
Published: 01 November 2017
...Jérémie Dhennin In this case study, the author describes the investigation of a defective DC-DC converter retrieved from an aircraft following the report of abnormal system behavior. Electrical testing, local probing, X-ray imaging, and cross-sectional analysis led to the discovery of cracks...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2007) 9 (2): 14–18.
Published: 01 May 2007
... image analysis techniques are discussed in this paper to aid in defect localization: image comparison and intensity profiling. Image comparison techniques exist in a myriad of forms, and a successful isolation of an elusive subsurface defect using image subtraction and subsequent gray-level expansion...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2013) 15 (3): 4–11.
Published: 01 August 2013
... of the circuit operation. Global techniques that map the secondary effects of defects have been widely used for as many failures as possible. These secondary effects include thermal emission, photon emission, and circuit operation dependencies on localized heating or carrier generation at a defect site. Each...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2010) 12 (3): 20–27.
Published: 01 August 2010
...S.H. Goh; A.C.T. Quah; J.C.H. Phang; V.K. Ravikumar; S.L. Phoa; V. Narang; J.M. Chin; C.M. Chua The best spatial resolution that can be achieved with far-field optical fault localization techniques is around 20 times larger than the critical defect size at the 45 nm technology node. There is also...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2010) 12 (3): 4–8.
Published: 01 August 2010
... defects. Thermally-IVA (TIVA) and Seebeck effect imaging (SEI)[5] were intro- duced in 1998 and use the local thermal stimulus presented by Kiyoshi Nikawa in optical beam-induced resistance change,[6] but with constant-current biasing to im- Fig. 2 TIVA signal of a shorted interconnection on a SRAM prove...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2012) 14 (2): 14–20.
Published: 01 May 2012
... will be introduced and their application will be demonstrated in the form of case studies. In the selected examples, specific focus is given to the typical features and requirements of 3-D vertical integration, for example, the requirement to localize, prepare, and analyze defects occurring in the interfaces...