Dealing with timing failures in nanometer-scale ICs requires a deeper understanding of critical timing paths, noise mechanisms, process variability, timing rules, and the statistical interaction of random parameter values and distributions. This article examines the factors that affect nanometer timing at both the component and system level. It reviews the timing properties of nanoscale logic gates, latches, edge-triggered flip-flops, clocks and their interconnects, resistive vias, and pipeline structures. It also discusses the challenges involved in determining critical timing paths and the underlying causes of nanometer timing failures.

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