Parametric failures are of two general types. One type is due to defects that affect circuit parameters. The other type, which occurs in defect-free parts, is the result of interdie parameter statistical variation. IC failures can be caused by variations in any number of parameters including Leff, Weff, IDsat, Vt, contact resistance, effective gate oxide thickness, source and drain resistance, interconnect sheet resistance, and intrametal spacing affecting cross-talk, ground bounce noise, and IR voltage drops. These failures often influence the maximum operating frequency of the IC and are seldom detected by simple stuck-at fault, delay fault, functional, or IDDQ tests. This article discusses the origin, classification, and detection of a wide range of parametric failures.

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