This article provides a high-level review of the tools and techniques used for backside analysis. It discusses the use of laser scanning and conventional microscopy, liquid and solid immersion lenses, photon emission microscopy (PEM), and laser-based fault isolation methods with emphasis on light-induced voltage alteration (LIVA). It explains how laser voltage probing is used for backside waveform acquisition and describes backside sample preparation and deprocessing techniques including parallel polishing and milling, laser chemical etching, and FIB circuit edit and modification.

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