Photon emission microscopy (PEM) has proven to be a powerful tool for fault isolation and has adapted well to ongoing changes in technology and emerging needs. In this tutorial, the authors describe the fundamentals of photon emission, the essential elements of a typical PEM system, and the procedures involved in diagnosing various types of failures. They also classify a wide range of photon-emitting defects and explain how PEM is used for backside analysis of flip-chip packaged devices and for timing diagnostics.

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