Chip-scale packages (CSPs) make efficient use of space on PCBs, but their small size, multilevel stacking arrangements, and complex interconnects present serious challenges when it comes to testing and failure analysis. This article describes some of the problems encountered when dealing with various types of CSPs and provides practical solutions based on the tools and techniques available in most FA labs. It discusses the causes and effects of package and die related failures and walks readers through the steps involved in decapsulating plastic FBGA packages using conventional etching, polishing, and milling techniques.

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