CMOS IC failure mechanisms are of three general types: bridge defects, open circuit defects, and parametric related failures. This article summarizes bridge and open-circuit defect properties and provides references for further self-study. Bridge defects are characterized based on location, their significance in terms of logic gates and transistors, and critical resistance for dc logic and timing failures. Open defects are more complex and diverse with six possible failure modes each of which are described in the article.
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