This article provides a qualitative overview of several new defect localization techniques, including charge-induced voltage alteration (CIVA), light-induced voltage alteration (LIVA), thermally-induced voltage alteration (TIVA), and Seebeck effect imaging (SEI). It explains how each method works in terms of the physics of signal generation and the types of images they produce. It also includes a summary highlighting the similarities and differences of each technique.

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