Transmission electron microscopes have been improved in various ways over the past two decades, giving rise to new characterization techniques. Among the innovations discussed in this article are the introduction of field emission guns, the incorporation of CCD cameras and X-ray detectors, and the use of lens correction systems. Such improvements have had a significant impact on failure analysis through the emergence of new TEM techniques, including precession electron diffraction for grain and strain analysis, noise reduction processing for low dose EELS mapping of ultra-low-k materials, and EDX tomography for elemental 3D imaging of defects on a nanometer scale.

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