The ratio of good to bad die on a production wafer can range from less than 10% to well over 90%, depending on the process and the complexity of the design. This article provides an overview of the modeling approaches used to predict wafer yield. It explains how to account for relative circuit complexity, systematic and random defects, and defect clustering. As the examples in the article show, with just a basic understanding of yield models, readers can estimate expected yield losses and identify abnormal yield results for a given design.

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