This article discusses the concept of a virtual known good device (VKGD) and how it used in the development of advanced 3D packaging. It explains that a VKGD is essentially an electromagnetic model of an IC package, including bumps, interposers, and through-silicon vias. These models, used in conjunction with reflectometry data, help engineers isolate faults in the early stages of IC package development, greatly reducing cycle times.

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