Atomic force microscopy has been a consistent factor in the advancements of the past decade in IC nanoprobing and failure analysis. Over that time, many new atomic force measurement techniques have been adopted by the IC analysis community, including scanning conductance, scanning capacitance, pulsed current-voltage, and capacitance-voltage spectroscopy. More recently, two new techniques have emerged: diamond probe milling and electrostatic force microscopy (EFM). As the authors of the article explain, diamond probe milling using an atomic force microscope is a promising new method for in situ, localized, precision delayering of ICs, while active EFM is a nondestructive alternative to EBAC microscopy for localization of opens in IC analysis.

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