This article provides an overview of the types of failures that tend to occur in photovoltaic (PV) modules in the field and the methods typically used to investigate them. It covers the causes and effects of broken and corroded interconnects, cracked and damaged cells, short and open bypass diodes, delamination, moisture ingress, and encapsulant discoloration. It describes tools and techniques commonly employed in the analysis of PV failures, including IV measurements, electroluminescence, infrared imaging, and visual inspection. It also discusses current and emerging challenges in PV failure analysis and reliability.

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