FIB milling is difficult if not impossible with III-V compound semiconductors and certain interconnect metals because the materials do not react well with the gallium used in most FIB systems. This article discusses the nature of the problem and explains how cryogenic FIB-SEM techniques provide a solution. It describes the basic setup of a FIB-SEM system and provides examples of its use on InN nanocrystals, GaN films, and copper-containing multilayer photovoltaic materials.

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