It seems that scaling of chip technology according to Moore’s Law will continue for digital functionalities (logic and memory); however, increasing system integration on chip and package levels, called “More than Moore,” has been observed in the past several years. This strong trend in the worldwide semiconductor industry enables more functionality, diversification, and higher value by creating smart microsystems. This article discusses the many challenges faced in FA of 3-D chips, where well-staffed and equipped FA labs are essential. Furthermore, FA is becoming an important strategic enabling factor for new products, not just another “cost factor.”

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