Failure analysis labs are fairly well equipped for dealing with shorts and leakages in stacked-die packages, but are at a disadvantage when it comes to opens, particularly those at the die or die interconnect level. This article presents a new FA technique that has the potential to make up for this shortcoming. The new method, called space domain reflectometry (SDR), is based on radio-frequency magnetic current imaging, and as the authors show, is capable of accurately locating a dead open in a double-stacked BGA package, even when the full stack is encapsulated in molding compound.

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