Failure analysis is becoming increasingly difficult with the emergence of 3D integrated packages due to their complex layouts, diverse materials, shrinking dimensions, and tight fits. This article demonstrates several FA techniques, including high-frequency scanning acoustic microscopy, lock-in thermography, and FIB cross-sectioning in combination with plasma ion etching or laser ablation. Detailed case studies show how the various methods can be used to analyze bonding integrity between different materials, chip-to-chip interface structures, buried interconnect defects, and through-silicon vias at either the device or package level.

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