This article discusses the practice of FIB-based in situ lift-out, a sample preparation method that has proven particularly useful for failure analysis. It explains how samples are now being made for a wide range of TEM techniques, including holography, tomography, high-angle annular dark-field scanning, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. In most cases, achieving optimal quality requires the use of alternate FIB milling angles, as in plan-view, sideways, and backside milling, all of which are discussed.

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