This article presents a failure analysis workflow tailored for complex ICs and device packages. The FA flow determines the root cause of failures using nondestructive analysis and advanced sample preparation techniques. The nondestructive tests typically used are X-ray radiography, scanning acoustic microscopy, time domain reflectometry, and magnetic current imaging. To gain access to interconnect failures, laser ablation is used, typically in combination with chemical etching to finish the decapsulation process. Repackaging is also part of the FA flow and is briefly discussed.

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