Scanning electron microscopes can be used to analyze almost anything that conducts electricity and is prone to failure, including relays, coils, inductors, capacitors, resistors, transistors, diodes, IGBTS, MOSFETS, and hybrid circuits. As the author of the article explains, SEMs are one of the most versatile tools for failure analysis if used to the full extent of their capabilities. Their operating modes include emissive imaging, backscattering, voltage contrast, EBIC or specimen current, and conductivity resistive mapping. The author describes each operating mode and presents examples of the various ways they can be used.

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