Arms bolted to powerline towers were falling off two weeks after installation. Metallurgical and chemical analysis performed on the base metal, weld zone, and heat-affected zone showed acceptable quality material. Residual stress appeared to be responsible for the high failure rate. The sources of residual stress included welding, environment, and assembly operation.
This article presents an overview of the science and engineering of materials along with suitable definitions, descriptions, and examples for better understanding for corrosionists with limited field knowledge. It begins with a detailed description of various categories of engineering materials and moves into the discussion of physical properties of materials, such as the phases, strength, conductivity, and wear. The article describes the methods used in the fabrication of engineering materials and summarizes the materials and their properties in a tabular form. The article concludes with information on material design, materials applications, and materials failure analysis.