Both nondestructive testing (NDT) and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) use noninvasive measurement techniques to gain information about defects and various properties of materials, components, and structures. This article begins with a discussion on the historical development of quantitative measurement techniques, evaluation reliability, and quantitative interpretation of nondestructive inspection methods. The common nondestructive evaluation methods, along with their uses and limitations, are summarized in a table. The article conceptually illustrates the interplay of NDE and fracture mechanics in the damage tolerant approach. It concludes with information on pressure vessel applications that can be separated into three protocols used by military nuclear power, commercial nuclear power, and non-nuclear pressure vessels and/or fired boilers.