Cast nickel-base alloys are used extensively in corrosive-media and high-temperature applications. This article briefly reviews the common types of heat treatments of nickel alloy castings: homogenization, stress relieving, in-process annealing, full annealing, solution annealing, quenching, coating diffusion, and precipitation. It describes the three general strengthening mechanisms, namely, solid-solution hardening, age hardening, and carbide precipitation. The article summarizes the typical heat treatment of the general families of nickel-base castings used in industrial applications. It focuses on the solution treatment and age hardening of cast nickel-base superalloys and the heat treatment of cast solid-solution alloys for corrosion-resisting applications. The article also discusses the typical types of atmospheres used in annealing or solution treating: exothermic, endothermic, dry hydrogen, dry argon, and vacuum.
Biomaterials are the man-made metallic, ceramic, and polymeric materials used for intracorporeal applications in the human body. This article primarily focuses on metallic materials. It provides information on basic metallurgy, biocompatibility, chemistry, and the orthopedic and dental applications of metallic biomaterials. A table compares the mechanical properties of some common implant materials with those of bone. The article also provides information on coatings, ceramics, polymers, composites, cements, and adhesives, especially where they interact with metallic materials.