Metal transparency and interaction with X-rays have been recognized as obvious candidate principles from which methods for in situ monitoring of solidification processes could be developed. This article describes the use of X-ray imaging-based techniques to investigate interface morphology evolution, solute transport, and various process phenomena at spatiotemporal resolutions. It discusses the three viable imaging techniques made available by synchrotron radiation for the real-time investigation of solidification microstructures in alloys. These include two-dimensional X-ray topography, two-dimensional X-ray radiography, and ultra-fast three-dimensional X-ray tomography.
Castability of alloys is a measure of their ability to be cast to a given shape with a given process without the formation of casting defects. This article describes the factors that limit fluidity as well as experimental methods for measuring fluidity of various alloys. Various tests designed for measuring the hot tearing tendency in alloys are discussed. The article also discusses the temperature dependence, criteria, and modeling of hot tearing.