Wear, a form of surface deterioration, is a factor in a majority of component failures. This article is primarily concerned with abrasive wear mechanisms such as plastic deformation, cutting, and fragmentation which, at their core, stem from a difference in hardness between contacting surfaces. Adhesive wear, the type of wear that occurs between two mutually soluble materials, is also discussed, as is erosive wear, liquid impingement, and cavitation wear. The article also presents a procedure for failure analysis and provides a number of detailed examples, including jaw-type rock crusher wear, electronic circuit board drill wear, grinding plate wear failure analysis, impact wear of disk cutters, and identification of abrasive wear modes in martensitic steels.
The article provides a discussion on the parameters influencing abrasive wear and the elements and standards of abrasion wear tests. It emphasizes the general test procedures, advantages, and limitations of various types of abrasive wear testing. Wear testing for scratch wear, dry abrasion against fixed particles, dry abrasion against loose particles, wet abrasion against fixed or loose particles, gouging-abrasion, small particle erosion, impact abrasion, slurry abrasion, and microabrasion, are also discussed.