The high-alloy irons can be categorized into two main groups: the high-alloy graphitic irons (covering both gray and ductile grades) and the high-alloy white irons. High-alloy irons are used in applications with demanding requirements, such as high resistance to wear, heat, and corrosion, or for combined properties. This article discusses the specification and selection of high-alloy irons. The common alloying elements and their effect on the stable and metastable eutectic temperatures are listed in a table. The article provides information on the compositions, properties and applications of high-alloy graphitic irons and high-alloy white irons.