Nitriding is a general term for all processes based on the addition of nitrogen to the surface of steel. When carbon is added along with the nitrogen, the process is called nitrocarburizing. This article provides a detailed discussion on the functional and structural properties of nitrided layers. It describes the structural changes on the surface of carbon steels, alloy steels, and austenitic stainless steels. The article explains the effects of the various nitriding processes, namely, gaseous nitriding, plasma nitriding, gaseous nitrocarburizing, and salt bath nitrocarburizing, on the structure and properties of nitrided layers.