Martensitic stainless steels are the least corrosion-resistant of all stainless alloys. The traditional martensitic stainless steels are iron/chromium/carbon alloys, sometimes with a small amount of nickel and/or molybdenum. This article provides an overview on the influences of the various possible alloying elements on the key properties of martensitic stainless steels. It describes the various preparation processes, namely, atmosphere selection, cleaning, and preheating, prior to heat treatment for these steels. Common heat treatment methods include annealing, hardening, tempering, and stress relieving. The article lists the compositions of casting alloys and also describes the effect of tempering temperature on the hardness, strength, ductility, and toughness properties of the alloys.