The heat treatment of steel involves a number of processes (such as stress relieving, normalizing, annealing etc) to condition the microstructure and obtain desired properties. This article discusses typical heat treating process control procedures for carbon and low-alloy steels, as well as the importance of time, and temperature control in heat treatment. Temperature Uniformity Survey, a testing procedure intended to map variations in temperature throughout the furnace work zone, helps in precise control of temperature. The article focuses on the measuring instruments used to determine gas pressure, vacuum level, gas flow, and gas composition. It focuses on their measuring quenchant characteristics, including bulk temperature, viscosity, composition, and cooling efficiency. The article describes the procedures for detecting variability in the incoming product. It presents, through an example, the general application of design of experiments techniques to locate and tune vital process parameters. The devices used in the control process of mechanical components are also reviewed.