Radioanalysis is an analytical technique that uses energy emitted by radioactive isotopes to measure the concentration of related elements in test samples. This article begins with a discussion on the principles of radioactive decay and various forms of emission, including alpha and beta-particle emission, positron emission, and gamma and x-ray emission. It compares and contrasts measurement techniques based on various detectors, namely, charged-particle detectors, photon detectors, counting and recording instruments, and radioactive decay spectrometers. It also addresses sample preparation, equipment and process safety, and the handling of radioactive gasses and materials. The article concludes with application examples involving the analysis of rare-earth elements and nuclear fuels.