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ASM Handbook

Materials Characterization

Edited by
Ruth E. Whan
Ruth E. Whan
Sandia National Laboratories
Search for other works by this author on:
ASM International
Volume
10
ISBN electronic:
978-1-62708-178-8
Publication date:
1986
Book Chapter

Credits

Published:
1986

Officers and Trustees of the American Society for Metals

Officers

  • John W. Pridgeon

     President and Trustee

     Consultant

  • Raymond F. Decker

     Vice President and Trustee

     Michigan Technological University

  • M. Brian Ives

     Immediate Past President and Trustee

     McMaster University

  • Frank J. Waldeck

     Treasurer

     Lindberg Corporation

Trustees

  • Herbert S. Kalish

     Adamas Carbide Corporation

  • William P. Koster

     Metcut Research Associates, Inc.

  • Robert E. Luetje

     Armco, Inc.

  • Richard K. Pitler

     Allegheny Ludlum Steel Corporation

  • Wayne A. Reinsch

     Timet

  • C. Sheldon Roberts

     Consultant

     Materials and Processes

  • Gerald M. Slaughter

     Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  • William G. Wood

     Technology Materials

  • Klaus M. Zwilsky

     National Materials Advisory Board

     National Academy of Sciences

  • Edward L. Langer

     Managing Director

Members of the ASM Handbook Committee (1985–1986)

  • Thomas D. Cooper

     (Chairman 1984-; Member 1981-)

     Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories

  • Roger J. Austin (1984-)

     Materials Engineering Consultant

  • Deane I. Biehler (1984-)

     Caterpillar Tractor Company

  • Thomas A. Freitag (1985-)

     The Aerospace Corporation

  • Charles David Himmelblau (1985-)

     Lockheed Missiles & Space Company, Inc.

  • John D. Hubbard (1984-)

     HinderTec, Inc.

  • Dennis D. Huffman (1983-)

     The Timken Company

  • Conrad Mitchell (1983-)

     United States Steel Corporation

  • David LeRoy Olson (1982-)

     Colorado School of Mines

  • Ronald J. Ries (1983-)

     The Timken Company

  • Peter A. Tomblin (1985-)

     DeHavilland Aircraft of Canada

  • Derek E. Tyler (1983-)

     Olin Corporation

  • Leonard A. Weston (1982-)

     Lehigh Testing Laboratories, Inc.

Previous Chairs of the ASM Handbook Committee

  • R.S. Archer

     (1940–1942) (Member, 1937–1942)

  • L.B. Case

     (1931–1933) (Member, 1927–1933)

  • E.O. Dixon

     (1952–1954) (Member, 1947–1955)

  • R.L. Dowdell

     (1938–1939) (Member, 1935–1939)

  • J.P. Gill

     (1937) (Member, 1934–1937)

  • J.D. Graham

     (1966–1968) (Member, 1961–1970)

  • J.F. Harper

     (1923–1926) (Member, 1923–1926)

  • C.H. Herty, Jr.

     (1934–1936) (Member, 1930–1936)

  • J.B. Johnson

     (1948–1951 ) (Member, 1944–1951)

  • L.J. Korb

     (1983) (Member, 1978–1983)

  • R.W.E. Leiter

     (1962–1963) (Member, 1955–1958, 1960–1964)

  • G.V. Luerssen

     (1943–1947) (Member, 1942–1947)

  • Gunvant N. Maniar

     (1979–1980) (Member, 1974–1980)

  • James L. McCall

     (1982) (Member, 1977–1982)

  • W.J. Merten

     (1927–1930) (Member, 1923–1933)

  • N.E. Promisel

     (1955–1961) (Member, 1954–1963)

  • G.J. Shubat

     (1973–1975) (Member, 1966–1975)

  • W.A. Stadtler

     (1969–1972) (Member, 1962–1972)

  • Raymond Ward

     (1976–1978) (Member, 1972–1978)

  • Martin G.H. Wells

     (1981) (Member, 1976–1981)

  • D.J. Wright

     (1964–1965) (Member, 1959–1967)

Volume Coordinator

The Volume Coordinator was Ruth E. Whan, Sandia National Laboratories.

Organizing Committee

  • Ruth E. Whan

    Chairman

     Sandia National Laboratories

  • Ray W. Carpenter

     Arizona State University

  • Paul T. Cunningham

     Los Alamos National Laboratory

  • William H. Dingledein

     Carpenter Technology Corporation

  • Kenneth H. Eckelmeyer

     Sandia National Laboratories

  • Dean A. Flinchbaugh

     Bethlehem Steel Corporation

  • Raymond P. Goehner

     Siemens Corporation

  • J.I. Goldstein

     Lehigh University

  • Merton Herrington

     Special Metals

  • Harris L. Marcus

     University of Texas

  • Carolyn McCrory-Joy

     AT&T Bell Laboratories

  • David A. Smith

     IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center

  • Suzanne H. Weissman

     Sandia National Laboratories

Authors and Reviewers

  • Brent L. Adams

     Brigham Young University

  • R.W. Armstrong

     University of Maryland

  • Mark A. Arnold

     University of Iowa

  • Roger A. Assink

     Sandia National Laboratories

  • Raghavan Ayer

     Exxon Research & Engineering Company

  • Delbert S. Berth

     University of Nevada

  • Larry H. Bennett

     National Bureau of Standards

  • S.M. Bhagat

     University of Maryland

  • J.C. Bilello

     State University of New York at Stony Brook

  • Jack Blakely

     Cornell University

  • George A. Blann

     Buehler Ltd.

  • G. Dana Brabson

     University of New Mexico

  • S.S. Brenner

     University of Pittsburgh

  • Chris W. Brown

     University of Rhode Island

  • Elliot L. Brown

     Colorado School of Mines

  • D.R. Browning

     Consultant

  • Richard R. Buck

     University of North Carolina

  • Robert W. Buennecke

     Caterpillar Tractor Company

  • Merle E. Bunker

     Los Alamos National Laboratory

  • Frank B. Burns

     Sandia National Laboratories

  • Thomas A. Cahill

     University of California—Davis

  • Alan Campion

     University of Texas—Austin

  • Martin J. Carr

     Sandia National Laboratories

  • Joel A. Carter

     Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  • Anders Cedergren

     University Umea

  • M.B. Chamberlain

     Sandia National Laboratories

  • W.F. Chambers

     Sandia National Laboratories

  • K.L. Cheng

      University of Missouri—Kansas City

  • Gary D. Christian

     University of Washington

  • Wei-Kan Chu

     University of North Carolina

  • M.J. Cieslack

     Sandia National Laboratories

  • William A.T. Clark

     Ohio State University

  • Stephen P. Clough

     Perkin-Elmer Corporation

  • Dick Crawford

     Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

  • Nelda A. Creager

     Sandia National Laboratories

  • Stanley R. Crouch

     Michigan State University

  • D.R. Crow

     The Polytechnic, Wolverhampton

  • A.W. Czanderna

     Solar Energy Research Institute

  • P. D'Antonio

     Naval Research Laboratory

  • David L. Davidson

     Southwest Research Institute

  • Barry Diamondstone

     National Bureau of Standards

  • David L. Donahue

     Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  • Elsie M. Donaldson

     Canmet

  • Thomas R. Dulski

     Carpenter Technology Corporation

  • James R. Durig

     University of South Carolina

  • Gareth R. Eaton

     University of Denver

  • Kenneth H. Eckelmeyer

     Sandia National Laboratories

  • T. Egami

     University of Pennsylvania

  • Robert Ellefson

     Monsanto Research Corporation

  • Loren Essig

     Leco Corporation

  • Deon G. Ettinger

     Argonne National Laboratories

  • Lynda M. Faires

     Los Alamos National Laboratory

  • Horatio A. Farach

     University of South Carolina

  • Paul B. Farnsworth

     Brigham Young University

  • B. Fleet

     Imperial College

  • D.M. Follstaedt

     Sandia National Laboratories

  • Ronald L. Foster

     Allied Bendix Corporation

  • James C. Franklin

     Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

  • Wolfgang Frech

     University of Umea

  • R.B. Fricioni

     Leco Corporation

  • William G. Fricke, Jr.

     Alcoa Technical Center

  • Stephen W. Gaarenstroom

     General Motors Research Laboratory

  • Mary F. Garbauskas

     General Electric R&D

  • S.R. Garcia

     Los Alamos National Laboratory

  • Anthony J. Garrett-Reed

     Massachusetts Institute of Technology

  • John V. Gilfrich

     Naval Research Laboratory

  • Ernest S. Gladney

     Los Alamos National Laboratory

  • Raymond P. Goehner

     Siemens Corporation

  • J.I. Goldstein

     Lehigh University

  • Michael Gonzales

     Sandia National Laboratories

  • John T. Grant

     University of Dayton Research Institute

  • Robert B. Greegor

     The Boeing Company

  • Q.G. Grindstaff

     Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

  • Anita L. Guy

     University of Arizona

  • D.M. Haaland

     Sandia National Laboratories

  • Richard L. Harlow

     E.I. DuPont de Nemours

  • Jackson E. Harrar

     Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

  • W.W. Harrison

     University of Virginia

  • Fred M. Hawkridge, Jr.

     Virginia Commonwealth University

  • T.J. Headley

     Sandia National Laboratories

  • G. Heath

     University of Edinburgh

  • Kurt F.J. Heinrich

     National Bureau of Standards

  • Michael B. Hintz

     Michigan Technological University

  • Paul F. Hlava

     Sandia National Laboratories

  • Paul Ho

     IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center

  • David H. Huskisson

     Sandia National Laboratories

  • Hatsuo Ishada

     Case Western Reserve University

  • Michael R. James

     Rockwell International Science Center

  • A. Joshi

     Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory

  • Silve Kallmann

     Ledoux and Company

  • J. Karle

     Naval Research Laboratory

  • Michael J. Kelly

     Sandia National Laboratories

  • Lowell D. Kispert

     University of Alabama

  • David B. Knorr

     Olin Corporation

  • John H. Konnert

     Naval Research Laboratory

  • Jiri Koryta

     Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences

  • Byron Kratochvil

     University of Alberta

  • Aaron D. Krawitz

     University of Missouri—Columbia

  • G.R. Lachance

     Geological Survey of Canada

  • Max G. Lagally

     University of Wisconsin

  • D.G. LeGrand

     General Electric Company

  • Donald E. Leyden

     Colorado State University

  • Eric Lifshin

     General Electric R&D Center

  • J.S. Lin

     Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  • MacIntyre R. Louthan, Jr.

     Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

  • Jesse B. Lumsden

     Rockwell International Science Center

  • C.E. Lyman

     Lehigh University

  • Curtis Marcott

     The Proctor & Gamble Company

  • J.L. Marshall

     Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

  • George M. Matlack

     Los Alamos National Laboratory

  • James W. Mayer

     Cornell University

  • M.E. McAllaster

     Sandia National Laboratories

  • Gregory J. McCarthy

     North Dakota State University

  • Linda B. McGown

     Oklahoma State University

  • N.S. McIntyre

     University of Western Ontario

  • T. Mehrhoff

     General Electric Neutron Devices

  • D.M. Mehs

     Fort Lewis College

  • Louis Meites

     George Mason University

  • C.A. Melendres

     Argonne National Laboratory

  • Raymond M. Merrill

     Sandia National Laboratories

  • M.E. Meyerhoff

     University of Michigan

  • J.R. Michael

     Bethlehem Steel Corporation

  • A.C. Miller

     Alcoa Technical Center

  • Dennis Mills

     Cornell University

  • M.M. Minor

     Los Alamos National Laboratory

  • Richard L. Moore

     Perkin-Elmer Corporation

  • Gerald C. Nelson

     Sandia National Laboratories

  • Dale E. Newbury

     National Bureau of Standards

  • John G. Newman

     Perkin-Elmer Corporation

  • Monte C. Nichols

     Sandia National Laboratories

  • M.A. Nicolet

     California Institute of Technology

  • M.R. Notis

     Lehigh University

  • M.C. Oborny

     Sandia National Laboratories

  • John Olesik

     University of North Carolina

  • Mark Ondrias

     University of New Mexico

  • David G. Oney

     Cambridge Instruments Inc.

  • Robert N. Pangborn

     Pennsylvania State University

  • Carlo G. Pantano

     Pennsylvania State University

  • Jeanne E. Pemberton

     University of Arizona

  • William M. Peterson

     EG&G Princeton Applied Research Corporation

  • Bonnie Pitts

     LTV Steel Company

  • Charles P. Poole, Jr.

     University of South Carolina

  • Ben Post

     Polytechnic Institute of New York

  • Paul S. Prevey

     Lambda Research, Inc.

  • William C. Purdy

     McGill University

  • R. Ramette

     Carleton College

  • Leo A. Raphaelian

     Argonne National Laboratory

  • Julian L. Roberts, Jr.

     University of Redlands

  • Philip J. Rodacy

     Sandia National Laboratories

  • Alton D. Romig, Jr.

     Sandia National Laboratories

  • Fred K. Ross

     University of Missouri Research Reactor

  • James F. Rusling

     University of Connecticut

  • Alexander Scheeline

     University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

  • Jerold M. Schultz

     University of Delaware

  • W.D. Shults

     Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  • Darryl D. Siemer

     Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company

  • John R. Sites

     Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  • Deane K. Smith

     Pennsylvania State University

  • G.D.W. Smith

     University of Oxford

  • Robert Smith

     Allied Bendix Corporation

  • Walter T. Smith, Jr.

     University of Kentucky

  • Robert L. Solsky

     E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Co., Inc.

  • W.R. Sorenson

     Sandia National Laboratories

  • John Speer

     Bethlehem Steel Company

  • Richard S. Stein

     University of Massachusetts

  • John T. Stock

     University of Connecticut

  • R. Sturgeon

     National Research Council of Canada

  • L.J. Swartzendruber

     National Bureau of Standards

  • John K. Taylor

     National Bureau of Standards

  • L.E. Thomas

     Westinghouse Hanford Company

  • M.T. Thomas

     Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory

  • Maria W. Tikkanen

     Applied Research Laboratory

  • Thomas Tombrello

     California Institute of Technology

  • Ervin E. Underwood

     Georgia Institute of Technology

  • James A. VanDenAvyle

     Sandia National Laboratories

  • David L. Vanderhart

     National Bureau of Standards

  • John B. Vander Sande

     Massachusetts Institute of Technology

  • George F. Vander Voort

     Carpenter Technology Corporation

  • K.S. Vargo

     Sandia National Laboratories

  • John D. Verhoeven

     Iowa State University

  • L. Peter Wallace

     Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

  • I.M. Warner

     Emory University

  • John Warren

     Environmental Protection Agency

  • E.L. Wehry

     University of Tennessee

  • Sigmund Weissman

     Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

  • Suzanne H. Weissman

     Sandia National Laboratories

  • Oliver C. Wells

     IBM Thomas Watson Research Center

  • J.V. Westwood

     Sir John Cass School of Physical Sciences & Technology

  • Ruth E. Whan

     Sandia National Laboratories

  • Joe Wong

     General Electric Company

  • W.B. Yelon

     University of Missouri Research Reactor

  • John D. Zahrt

     Los Alamos National Laboratory

  • W.H. Zoller

     University of Washington

Staff

ASM International staff who contributed to the development of the Volume included Kathleen Mills, Manager of Editorial Operations; Joseph R. Davis, Senior Technical Editor; James D. Destefani, Technical Editor; Deborah A. Dieterich, Production Editor; George M. Crankovic, Assistant Editor; Heather J. Frissell, Assistant Editor; and Diane M. Jenkins, Word Processing Specialist. Editorial assistance was provided by Esther Coffman, Robert T. Kiepura, and Bonnie R. Sanders. The Volume was prepared under the direction of William H. Cubberly, Director of Publications; and Robert L. Stedfeld, Associate Director of Publications.

Conversion to Electronic Files

ASM Handbook, Volume 10, Materials Characterization was converted to electronic files in 1998. The conversion was based on the Fifth printing (1998). No substantive changes were made to the content of the Volume, but some minor corrections and clarifications were made as needed.
ASM International staff who contributed to the conversion of the Volume included Sally Fahrenholz-Mann, Bonnie Sanders, Marlene Seuffert, Gayle Kalman, Scott Henry, Robert Braddock, Alexandra Hoskins, and Erika Baxter. The electronic version was prepared under the direction of William W. Scott, Jr., Technical Director, and Michael J. DeHaemer, Managing Director.

1986. "Credits", Materials Characterization, Ruth E. Whan

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