This article provides an introduction to the molecular fluorescence spectroscopy, and discusses the theory of fluorescence and its application to chemical analysis. It provides information on fluorescence that occurs in organic compounds and inorganic atoms and molecules. The article describes the instruments used in the spectroscopy, namely, radiation sources, sample holders, wavelength selectors, detectors, computers, and ratiometric instruments. The practical considerations include solvent effects, corrected spectra, wavelength calibration, temperature, and scattered light. The article also discusses the uses of some special techniques used in molecular fluorescence spectroscopy.