Classical, Electrochemical, and Radiochemical Analysis
This article provides information on basic chemical equilibria, wet analytical chemistry, and the appropriateness of classical wet methods. It focuses on nonoxidizing acids and oxidizing acids. The article includes information on the qualitative methods used to identify materials by wet chemical reaction. Gravimetry, in which a chemical species is weighed; titrimetry, which involves volume measurement of a liquid reactant; and a host of separation techniques, which require diverse forms of laboratory manipulation, are discussed. The article briefly describes the partitioning of oxidation states as well as those applications in surface studies and rapid material identification in which chemical techniques have proved useful.