The strength of aluminum castings can be improved significantly by heat treatments, which control the size, shape, and distribution of the impurity elements in the casting. This article presents a discussion on the heat treatment of aluminum alloy castings, with a focus on the fundamental technical aspects involved in each process step. The intent is to convey a good understanding of the fundamental aspects of heat treatment. Typical heat treatments of aluminum casting alloys are presented in a table. The article describes the solution heat treatment, quenching, and preaging of Al-Si-Mg alloys, as well as the solution heat treatment and artificial aging of Al-Si-Cu-Mg casting alloys.