Aluminum casting in steel and iron permanent molds is used widely throughout industry, and the vast majority of permanent mold castings are made of aluminum and its alloys. There are several methods used to cast aluminum in permanent molds. This article focuses on permanent mold casting with molten aluminum fed by gravity, low pressure, vacuum and centrifugal pressure, and squeeze casting. It discusses the major variables that affect the life of permanent molds, including pouring temperature, casting shape, cooling methods, heating cycles, storage, and cleaning. The article reviews the basic components of mold coatings: refractory fillers, binder, and carrier. Casting defects and suggested corrective actions for permanent mold casting are summarized in a table. The article concludes with a discussion on thin-wall permanent-mold castings.