Welding, Brazing and Soldering
Electron-beam welding (EBW) can produce deep, narrow, and almost parallel-sided welds with low total heat input and relatively narrow heat-affected zones in a wide variety of common and exotic metals. This article discusses the joint configurations and shrinkage stresses encountered in various joint designs for electron-beam welding, as well as special joints and welds including multiple-pass welds, tangent-tube welds, three-piece welds, and multiple-tier welds. It provides a comparison of medium vacuum EBW with high-vacuum EBW. Scanning is a method of checking the run-out between the beam spot and the joint to be welded. The article describes various scanning techniques for welding dissimilar metals and provides information on the application of electron-beam wire-feed process for repairs. It concludes with a discussion on EBW of heat-resistant alloys, refractory metals, aluminum alloys, titanium alloys, copper and copper alloys, magnesium alloys, and beryllium.