Electroslag welding (ESW) and electrogas welding (EGW) are two related procedures that are used to weld thick-section materials in the vertical or near-vertical position between retaining shoes. This article discusses the fundamentals of the electroslag process in terms of heat flow conditions and metal transfer and weld pool morphology. It presents constitutive equations for welding current, voltage, and travel rate for ESW. The article describes the metallurgical and chemical reactions in terms of fusion zone compositional effects, weld metal inclusions, solidification structure, and solid-state transformations. It describes the electroslag process development and the applications of electroslag and electrogas processes. The article concludes with a discussion on weld defects, such as temper embrittlement, hydrogen cracking, and weld distortion.