Fusion welding processes involve four phase changes, namely, solid-solid state, solid-liquid, liquid-vapor, and vapor-plasma. Each has its own thermal, momentum, and stress history. This article discusses some important techniques to validate temperature, momentum, stress, and residual strain history observed in the heat-affected zone of fusion welded materials.
J. Mazumde, 1993. "Validation Strategies for Heat-Affected Zone and Fluid-Flow Calculations", Welding, Brazing and Soldering, David LeRoy Olson, Thomas A. Siewert, Stephen Liu, Glen R. Edwards
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