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ASM Handbook

Welding, Brazing and Soldering

Edited by
David LeRoy Olson
David LeRoy Olson
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Thomas A. Siewert
Thomas A. Siewert
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Stephen Liu
Stephen Liu
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Glen R. Edwards
Glen R. Edwards
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ASM International
Volume
6
ISBN electronic:
978-1-62708-173-3
Publication date:
1993
Book Chapter

Underwater Welding

By
S. Liu
S. Liu
Colorado School of Mines
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D.L. Olson
D.L. Olson
Colorado School of Mines
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S. Ibarra
S. Ibarra
Amoco Corporation Research
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Published:
1993
Page range:
1010 - 1015

Abstract

This article discusses the metallurgical aspects of underwater welds. It describes the microstructural development, which mainly includes three types of ferrite associated with low carbon steel weld metal: grain-boundary ferrite, sideplate ferrite, and acicular ferrite. The article explains the factors that affect heat-affected zone (HAZ) cracking. These include hydrogen from the weld pool, microstructures that develop in the HAZ, and stress levels that develop in the weld joint. The article describes the welding practices that can reduce residual stresses. It explains the effect of water pressure on the formation of porosity in underwater gravity welding. The article concludes with a discussion on the practical applications of underwater welding.

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S. Liu, D.L. Olson, S. Ibarra, 1993. "Underwater Welding", Welding, Brazing and Soldering, David LeRoy Olson, Thomas A. Siewert, Stephen Liu, Glen R. Edwards

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