Fundamentals of Diffusion Bonding
Diffusion bonding is only one of many solid-state joining processes wherein joining is accomplished without the need for a liquid interface (brazing) or the creation of a cast product via melting and resolidification. This article offers a qualitative summary of the theory of diffusion bonding. It discusses factors that affect the relative difficulty of diffusion bonding oxide-bearing surfaces. These include surface roughness prior to welding, mechanical properties of the oxide, relative hardness of the metal and its oxide film, and prestraining or work hardening of the material. The article describes the mechanism of diffusion bonding in terms of microasperity deformation, diffusion-controlled mass transport, and interface migration. It concludes with a discussion on diffusion bonding with interface aids.