This article discusses the susceptibility of carbon steels to hydrogen-induced cracking, solidification cracking, lamellar tearing, weld metal porosity, and heat-affected zone (HAZ) mechanical property variations. The composition and mechanical properties of selected carbon steels used in arc welding applications are listed in a table. The article presents process selection guidelines for arc welding carbon steels. It provides information on the shielded metal arc welding, gas-metal arc welding, and flux-cored arc welding, gas-tungsten arc and plasma arc welding, submerged arc welding, electrogas welding, electroslag welding, and stud arc welding.
This article discusses factors involved in selecting welding processes and consumables and establishing procedures and practices for the arc welding of low-alloy steels. It provides information on welding consumables in terms of filler metals and fluxes and shielding gases. The article describes the various categories of low-alloy steels, such as high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) structural steels, high-strength low-alloy quenched and tempered(HSLA Q&T) structural steels, low-alloy steels for pressure vessels and piping, medium-carbon heat-treatable (quenched and tempered) low-alloy (HTLA) steels, ultrahigh-strength low-alloy steels, and low-alloy tool and die steels. It concludes with a discussion on repair practices for tools and dies.