This article presents in-depth metallurgical information about the response of carbon and low-alloy steels to welding conditions and micro-structural evolution in the weld heat-affected zone. It discusses the fabrication weldability and service weldability of carbon and low-alloy steels. The article describes six general classes of the metal: low-carbon steels, high-strength low-alloy steels, quenched-and-tempered steels, heat-treatable low-alloy steels, thermal-mechanical-controlled processing steels, and chromium-molybdenum steels. It concludes with an illustration of steels' susceptibility to hydrogen-assisted cold cracking relative to carbon content and carbon equivalent.
This article describes the common defects associated with arc welds in the weld metal and the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the plate. These defects include porosity, incomplete fusion, hot cracks, lamellar tearing, undercut, rollover, and inclusions. The article details hydrogen-induced cracking and its mechanism as well as the control measures. It provides information on measurement of hydrogen in weld metal and presents a table that contain information on effect of welding processes and electrodes on hydrogen levels in welds.