This article introduces the principal methodologies and some technologies that are being applied for nondestructive evaluation of composite materials. These include ultrasonic testing (UT), air-coupled UT, laser UT, ultrasonic spectroscopy, leaky lamb wave method, acousto-ultrasonics, radiography, X-ray computed tomography, thermography, low-frequency vibration methods, acoustic emission, eddy current testing, optical holography, and shearography. The article presents some examples are for fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composites. Many of the techniques have general applicability to other types of composites such as metal-matrix composites and ceramic-matrix composites.
ASM International Committee on Nondestructive Testing of Composites , R.H. Bossi, D.E. Bowles, Y. Bar-Cohen, T.E. Drake, D. Emahiser, R.W. Engelbart, G.E. Georgeson, E.G. Henneke, II, R.D. Lawson, S.-S. Lih, P.W. Lorraine, A.K. Mal, S.M. Shepard, J. Tucker, 2001. "Nondestructive Testing", Composites, Daniel B. Miracle, Steven L. Donaldson
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