Metals Process Simulation
This article summarizes many approaches that are used to simulate relaxation of bulk residual stresses in components. It presents analytical examples to highlight the complexity of residual stress and strain distributions observed in simple geometries, with ideal material behavior and trivial loading and boundary conditions. The article discusses approximate and advanced solution techniques that can be employed in practice for simulation of residual stress relief: finite-difference method and finite-element method. It also describes advanced techniques applicable to transient creep, advanced constitutive models, and complicated stress and temperature loading histories.