Computer-aided engineering and design have substantially changed the way new products are developed and defined. The pencil and drafting table have long since been replaced by the mouse and computer monitor. To date, much of this engineering transformation has been limited to geometric design, or the form and fit of a component. Efforts are now ongoing to develop computer-based tools to assess the function of components under the intended final application conditions (i.e., temperature, environment, stress, and time).
There have been substantial efforts over the past 25 years to develop and implement computer-based models to simulate manufacturing processes and the evolution of microstructure and accompanying mechanical properties within component materials. The rate of change within this area of engineering has continued to increase with increasing industrial application benefits from the use of such engineering tools, accompanied by the reduced cost and increased speed of computing systems required to perform increasingly complex simulations.
Volumes 22A and 22B of the ASM Handbook series summarize models that describe the behavior of metallic materials under processing conditions and describe the development and application of simulation methods for a wide range of materials and manufacturing processes. Such information allows the sharing of best practices among diverse scientific, engineering, and manufacturing disciplines. Background information on fundamental modeling methods detailed in Volume 22A provides the user with a solid foundation of the underlying physics that support many industrial simulation software packages. The present Volume provides an overview of a number of specific metals processing simulation tools applicable in the metals manufacturing industry for a wide range of engineering materials.
All simulation tools require a variety of inputs. For example, details regarding material and process boundary conditions are critical to the success of any computer-based simulation. Thus, this Handbook also provides information regarding material and process boundary conditions that are applicable to manufacturing methods. Additionally, this Volume provides guidance regarding how to develop and assess required thermophysical material data for materials that have not been previously characterized, so practitioners of simulation software packages can effectively generate required material and manufacturing process databases to enable successful predictions for metals processing methods.
The benefits provided by integrated computational materials engineering include reduced component development time, enhanced optimization of component design (design for performance, design for manufacturing, and design for cost), and increased right-the-first-time manufacturing. These benefits have led to an overwhelming pull for materials and manufacturing process simulation integration with early stages of component design.
D.U. Furrer, FASM
S.L. Semiatin, FASM
Air Force Research Laboratory
Air Force Research Laboratory